Biological Plant Protection in the European Union (in Germany as an Example)


  • H.O. Iutynska Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology, NAS of Ukraine, 154 Akademika Zabolotnoho Str., Kyiv, 03143, Ukraine
  • N.A. Yamborko Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research, 15 Permoserstr, Leipzig, 04318, Germany



biopesticides,, antagonistic microbes, plant pathogen-parasites, nematicides, bioinsecticides, acaricides, bioherbicides.


The application of ecological plant protection products against diseases, pests, and weeds is relevant for modern science-provided crop production. Much attention is paid to this problem in the European Union, where the use of pesticides is strictly adjusted by the European Food Safety Authority. Great hopes are pinned on biological plant protection products. However, among the thousands of biological products included in the BioPesticide DataBase, only a small number are authorized for use in agriculture. The requirements for the use of biological protectants in organic farming are even more stringent, regulating not only the properties of the product but also the crops in which they can be used. The aim of the work was to present the main requirements for the safety of biopesticides in the EU countries and to give an overview of biopesticides authorized for use in traditional and organic farming using Germany as an example. Methods. Analysis of EU documents on the requirements for registration of active substances in biological products for plant protection, biopesticide databases, and the list of biopesticides approved for use in general and organic farming in Germany. Results. According to the EU requirements for biopesticide safety, registration of biological plant protection products based on bacteria, fungi, and viruses, individual microbial cellular components or metabolites, as well as insect predators, pheromones, and plant-origin substances is allowed. Among the biopesticides with bactericidal and fungicidal effects registered in Germany, the preparations based on microbial antagonizing plant pathogens are prevalent, as well as preparations elaborated on the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans, Trichoderma asperellum, Verticillium albo-atrum, Coniothyrium minitans, bacteria Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and also the preventive drug Cerevisan based on the cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The following bioformulations based on Bacillus thuringiensis, Beauveria bassiana, Cydia pomonella Granulovirus, avermectin antibiotic Abamectine A, herbal products Azadirachtin A and Piretrin, and Maltodextrin are registered as insecticides. A bioformulation based on Bacillus firmus is authorized for use as a nematocide. Conclusions. Registration of biological plant protection products in Germany is carried out in accordance with the EU requirements for the safety of biopesticides. The list includes preparations based on antagonistic microorganisms, predatory microorganisms, microbial metabolites with antibiotic activity, substances for stimulation in plants nonspecific resistance to infectious agents. The fungicidal products are the widest represented. The number of products to control bacterial and nematode infections as well as the bioinsecticides spectrum is very limited. These are the well promising areas for further research and development of biological products.


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How to Cite

Iutynska, H., & Yamborko, N. (2024). Biological Plant Protection in the European Union (in Germany as an Example). Mikrobiolohichnyi Zhurnal, 86(3), 76-87.